Suicide is the deprivation of life on a voluntary basis, without the participation of other people. Unfortunately, in modern society taking ones own life is a fairly common occurrence. The causes of suicide can be different, a person makes such a decision on the basis of certain life difficulties of a psychological and social nature.
According to studies, 75% of people who plan to take their own lives have somehow revealed their intentions. These were both open threats and subtle hints of impending suicide. Almost all of these people visited psychologists, social workers, doctors or teachers, from which we can conclude that they tried to speak out. Signs of planned suicide are revealed during the conversation and are manifested in the duality of feelings. On the one hand, they experience hopelessness, and on the other, they hope for salvation. In most cases, the arguments for and against such an act are fairly balanced.
More than 800 thousand people worldwide commit suicide every year. This means that every 40 seconds someone in the world takes his or her own life. The true number of suicides is probably even greater since in some countries the issue of suicide is confidential and forbidden information, so statistics are underestimated. Suicide is the second leading cause of death among people aged 15 to 29 years. In most countries, people over 70 years old have the highest suicide rates. Directly or indirectly, suicides affect a fairly wide layer of our society.
Often you can help with simple words of support. If this is not done, the scales will tip in favor of committing suicide. That is why it is so important to know the signs of the planned suicide.
If anyone close to you has any of the following alarming symptoms, you should immediately seek help from a psychiatrist or a quick response service, such as the police.
The following symptoms may be a less dangerous situation, but we should not hesitate to offer our help to those who have it:
Not all people who attempt suicide inform others of their intentions, but most of them have similar disturbing symptoms. Therefore, take them seriously!
Even if professional help is not available, you should not discount the strength of sincerely caring friends and family members.
Puberty is the most difficult stage in the formation of an adult personality. That is why the percentage of suicides is extremely high among this age category.
The causes of suicide among adolescents are as follows:
In addition, the media has a strong influence on the unformed personality. As a result of this, life is often reduced as an imitation of favorite characters from films or books. Other causes of teen suicide are drinking alcohol, toxic or narcotic substances, and depression. In addition, the death of a family member or close friend or poor academic performance can lead to suicide. For girls, rape or early pregnancy may also be the cause of suicide. However, suicide is not always the result of a tragic accident. There are gifted individuals who do not fit into the surrounding reality, which makes them feel like social outcasts. This can push them to such a desperate step. The causes of suicide and their prevention are one of the most important problems of psychology. You need to tell children from a very young age what suicide is and how to avoid it. Meanwhile, many parents avoid this topic, believing that this problem will not affect their child.
Teen suicide prevention consists of timely psychological assistance and good participation. In addition, one should take into account the high degree of suggestibility of this age category. Teenagers present their beautiful young body in a coffin, grief of loved ones, as well as their guilt. It is important to dispel this myth by explaining and demonstrating how they will look after they are found. Using these methods, it is important to remember that adolescents are extremely sensitive and their reaction to any words can be unpredictable. That is why the issue of prevention of teenage suicide is so important in modern society.
There are behavioral, verbal, and social signs, and there may be many reasons for suicide. The first group of signs includes constant statements and unhealthy jokes on the topic of death, and behavioral ones can manifest themselves in a sudden distribution of personal things. This also includes restoring order in personal papers, deeds, reconciliation with people, as well as a sharp change in habitual behavior. Situational signs are manifested in social isolation, an unexpected crisis in the family, and alcoholism.
Analyzing the causes of suicides, statistics show that the main ones are:
According to statistics, 30% of attempts to commit suicide are repeated after a while, and 10% are made. In addition, attempts to reduce scores with life are recorded 6 times more often than completed suicides.
Scientists have identified a risk group where the possibility of committing suicide is significantly higher than that of other people. These include:
All causes of suicide may have a psychological or social aspect. A deep conflict of motives within the personality can lead to an attempt to reduce scores with life.
The psychological causes of suicide often lie in a person’s early childhood. As a rule, these are authoritarian parents who show excessive cruelty in education. Often the result of this is a manifestation of aggression in adulthood when a person tries to change his life situation in this way. If the objects of aggression cannot be found, it can turn to the personality itself, which will lead to suicide.
Another psychological aspect of suicide is associated with hysterical and demonstrative manifestations. Typically, this is a desire to manipulate another person. For example, a girl can take a large dose of sleeping pills, hoping that she will be saved, and the young man’s attitude towards her will change. Or a guy can consciously participate in dangerous races, thus striving to influence the emotions of his beloved. A person can really go in his or her attempts to manipulate. But the more conscious the motives for action, the less tragic the consequences. Another psychological reason for suicide is the desire to punish inattention. It seems to the person in this situation that people will bitterly regret their behavior after his or her death. Unfortunately, this reason has no real basis. These are the main causes of suicide in adults and adolescents, and most often this applies to young people of a certain age.
The social causes of suicide are no less significant. One of the main ones is religion. It often happens that spiritual laws calling for love of one’s neighbor contribute to an increase in internal tension. Such tension causes a person to conflict with himself when his aggression turns against him. Here comes the concept of guilt and salvation from it. In this case, a person thinks that any wrongdoing should be punished, as a result of which the person begins to approach the hour of reckoning. Another social aspect of suicide is the overstatement of one’s own significance. Such a situation is typical for such cases when a family member dies. The survivor begins to cultivate his or her own guilt and gradually comes to the conclusion that his or her death will be the only way to make amends for it.
One of the main supporters of the social causes of suicide is the French sociologist Emile Durkheim. According to his theory, it is a society that causes the bulk of suicides. Durkheim believed that there was some kind of social consciousness dictating to people how to live. For example, a person may come to the conclusion that he or she is not worthy of life, because he or she does not have a family or work. He reduces all the main causes of suicide to one – loneliness. He believes that this pushes a person to takes his own life away.
Durkheim disagrees with the psychological causes of suicide and cites the following fact: there are more women than men in homes for mentally ill people. However, the latter commit 80% of all suicides. He also argues with supporters of the belief that suicidal tendencies are inherited. The sociologist claims that both men and women receive the same set of genes, but it is men who are more likely to take their own lives.
Durkheim divided suicide into several types. The causes of suicide depend on its type. So, there are three types of suicide according to the sociologist: egoistic, altruistic, anomic.
The egoistic type comes when the person is faced with the inability to satisfy personal egoistic needs. For example, a person may want a lot of money or a high position in society but not have internal resources to achieve the goal. In this case, especially if there is no support from loved ones, the likelihood of committing suicide is extremely high.
Altruistic suicide is called when a person says goodbye to life disinterestedly for the sake of other people. For example, such a situation is possible when suicide is committed in order to obtain family insurance for the life of the deceased.
Anomic suicide is associated with a certain state of society when there are disagreements in it, and there is no normative and moral framework for behavior. Durkheim believed that too rapid development of society could lead to mass suicides. At this rate, there is no equilibrium, which is accompanied by an economic downturn or, conversely, a recovery. In the first case, people take their lives because of the loss of capital, in the second – because it seems to them that others are getting richer faster. This type of suicide is a kind of selfish, as it also depends on the personal needs of the person.
Experts say suicide can be prevented by being more attentive to each other. A person who has decided on suicide is trying to covertly signal to others about his or her plans. Therefore, you should not miss the moment when you need to contact a specialist.
If someone has suicidal tendencies, family members and friends play an important role in prevention.
Here are some suggestions for family members and friends: